While intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) may be useful in a variety of basic and clinical scenarios, their implementation is hindered by a variety of factors, many of which are related to the stiff material composition of the device. MEAs are often fabricated from high modulus materials such as silicon, leaving devices vulnerable to brittle fracture and thus complicating device fabrication and handling. For this reason, polymer-based devices are being heavily investigated; however, their implementation is often difficult due to mechanical instability that requires insertion aids during implantation. In this study, we design and fabricate intracortical MEAs from a shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate that remains stiff at room temperature but softens to 20 MPa after implantation, therefore allowing the device to be implanted without aids. We demonstrate chronic recordings and electrochemical measurements for 16 weeks in rat cortex and show that the devices are robust to physical deformation, therefore making them advantageous for surgical implementation.
Nav1. 7 and Nav1. 8 channels play a key role in the manifestation of inflammatory pain. The ability to screen compounds that modulate voltage-gated sodium channels using cell-based assays assumes that key channels present in vivo is maintained in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of two inflammatory mediators associated with chronic inflammatory pain, nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), to adult DRG neurons increases their firing rates on multi-electrode arrays in vitro. Nav1. 7 and Nav1. 8 proteins are readily detected in cultured neurons and contribute to evoked activity. The blockade of both Nav1. 7 and Nav1. 8, has a profound impact on thermally evoked firing after treatment with IL-6 and NGF. This work underscores the utility of multi-electrode arrays for pharmacological studies of sensory neurons and may facilitate the discovery and mechanistic analyses of anti-nociceptive compounds.
Cell-based assays comprising primary sensory neurons cultured in vitro are an emerging tool for the screening and identification of potential analgesic compounds and chronic pain treatments. High-content screening (HCS) platforms for drug screening are characterized by a measure of assay quality indicator, such as the Z’-factor, which considers the signal dynamic range and data variation using control compounds only. Although widely accepted as a quality metric in high throughput screening (HTS), standard Z’-factor are not well-suited to indicate the quality of complex cell-based assays.
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury presents with severe spontaneous pain and a variety of comorbidities, including deficits in higher executive functions. None of these clinical problems are adequately treated with current analgesics. Targeting of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase (MNK1/2) and its phosphorylation target, the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, attenuates many types of nociceptive plasticity induced by inflammatory mediators and chemotherapeutic drugs but inhibiting this pathway does not alter nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia.